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Perfect Infinitive

Категория: Блог
Дата: 30.12.2023
Средняя оценка: 5.0 (1 голос)

Have + Past Participle (3d column of the Irregular Verbs List or V+ed) - is Perfect Infinitive. Роль Perfect Infinitive в английском языке заключается в передаче информации о завершенности действия. Perfect Infinitive может использоваться не только в прошедшем, но и в будущем! Когда Perfect Infinitive относится к прошлому, то показывает, что действие инфинитива произошло до действия предшествующего глагола в предложении:

He claims to have won a lot of money. (First, he won the money, then he claimed that he had won it.) The structure ‘have + past participle’ is called a perfect infinitive. Perfect infinitives can have the same kind of meaning as perfect or past tenses.
  • I am glad to have found my soul mate. (= I am glad that I have found my soul mate.)
  • She was sorry to have missed the show. (= She was sorry that she had missed the show.)
  • I hope to have finished the job by next Monday. (= I hope that I will have finished the job by next Monday.)
  • She seems to have quit the job. (= It seems that she has quit the job.)
  • He seems to have been ill.
  • He is known to have abandoned his family.
  • She claims to have met a number of famous people, but I don’t believe her. (or She claims she has met )
  •  I would prefer to have stayed at a small, family-run hotel than a big international chain. (I prefer to stay at small hotels, but I did not.)
  • He pretended not to have noticed me. (First, she/he didn't notice and then (after some time) pretended)
  • I happened to have seen that film before.(First, she/he saw and then (after some time) happened)

В будущем Perfect Infinitive используется, чтобы показать, что действие полностью завершится ДО определенного времени:

  • Before I turn 40, I want to have written a book.
  • I would prefer to have stayed at a small, family-run hotel than a big international chain. (I prefer to stay at small hotels, but I did not yet.)
  • We hope to have finished the building works by the end of March.

    Perfect Infinitive мы можем увидеть в:

Условные предложения 3-го типа:
  • Пример: If he had visited her yesterday, she would have enjoyed it.
Present Perfect:
  • Пример: I have done it before.
С такими глаголами как: claim, expect, hate, hope, like, love, prefer, pretend, report:

He pretended to have lost her number and so had been unable to contact her.(or He pretended that he had lost her number …)

  • Пример: She hopes to have completed the assignment by tomorrow.
В придаточном предложении с глаголом (сказуемым), у которого нет подлежащего (a non-finite clause). Он может относиться к событиям, которые действительно произошли в прошлом, или к событиям, которые могли бы произойти (но не произошли):
  • To have got the job in the face of such stiff competition was a great achievement. (The person did get the job.)
  • To have won the race would have been fantastic, but even coming second was a great achievement. (The person did not win the race.)
В Future Perfect:
  • By the end of summer I will have come back home, to the USA.
  • They will have wrapped all the presents by Tuesday
С модальными глаголами may/might, should, could, would, etc.: a) После модальных глаголов Must и May употребляется Перфектный Инфинитив, для предположения действий, которые уже совершились.
    1. They must have gone for a walk. Они, должно быть, ушли на прогулку.

      I may have been wrong. Я, может быть, был неправ.

      Passive Voice/Страдательный залог:

      The file must have been deleted. Должно быть, файл был удален.

      They may have got married in June. Возможно, что они поженились в июне.

      CAN + Perfect Infinitive

      После модального глагола Can также может употребляться Перфектный Инфинитив, однако смысл выражаемого действия будет несколько иным. В данном случае основным смысловым мотивом будут удивление или сомнение относительно совершенного действия.

      Can he have made so many mistakes in one sentence?! Неужели он сделал столько ошибок в одном предложении?!

      My friends can't have said «No»! Не может быть, чтобы мои друзья сказали «Нет»!

      SHOULD, COULD и MIGHT для выражения отношения к действию, которое должно было совершиться, но так и не совершилось. Часто доминирующим смыслом в данной конструкции является упрек, но это зависит от контекста.

      You might have helped the old lady! Ты мог бы помочь пожилой женщине (но не помог)! (упрек)

      We could have caught the train, but the traffic jam was terrible. Мы могли бы успеть на поезд, но пробка на дороге была ужасная.

      You should have come earlier. Тебе следовало бы придти пораньше. (упрек и пожелание)

      OUGHT TO, BE TO

      Если Перфектный Инфинитив используется с модальными глаголами, то подтекст «упрека» здесь, как правило, отсутствует:

      The meeting ought to have started an hour ago. Встреча должна была начаться (но не началась) час назад.

      You were to have made a special dinner. Ты должна была приготовить специальный обед.

Complex Subject
  • He is said to have finished the project in May. Говорят, что он закончил проект в Мае.
  • She seemed to have fallen ill. Казалось, что она заболела.
  • I am so glad to have found this job. Я так рад, что получил эту работу.
  • My wife is likely to have lost the car keys. Похоже, что моя жена потеряла ключи от автомобиля.

Passive Voice/Страдательный залог:

  • The tourists are reported to have been robbed. Сообщается, что туристы были ограблены.
  • The device turned out to have already been destroyed. Оказалось, что устройство уже было уничтожено.
  • We were lucky to have been invited to the concert. Нам повезло, что нас пригласили на концерт.
  • He is unlikely to have been taken to hospital. Мало вероятно, что его забрали в больницу.__________________________________________________________
Упражнения на использование Perfect Infinitive: Have + Past Participle
  1. Закончите предложение, используя Perfect Infinitive:
    • I was shocked to ____________ (hear) that she had resigned.
    • By the time we arrived, they ____________ (leave) the party.
    • She claimed ____________ (visit) all the major cities in Europe.
    • They pretended not ____________ (see) the accident.
    • Before the deadline, I hope ____________ (complete) the project.
  2. Переведите следующие предложения на английский, используя Perfect Infinitive:
    • Он утверждает, что он уже закончил свою домашнюю работу.
    • Мы предпочли бы остаться в теплой стране весь зимний сезон.
    • К сожалению, она заявила, что пропустила самое интересное шоу.
    • Мы надеемся, что они завершат строительные работы к концу лета.
    • Прежде чем я вернусь домой, я хочу написать книгу.
  3. Заполните пропуски, используя правильную форму Perfect Infinitive:
    • She pretended not ____________ (eat) the cake.
    • I am glad to ____________ (find) this rare book.
    • They are expected ____________ (arrive) by noon.
    • You should ____________ (read) the instructions before starting.
    • We hope ____________ (receive) the feedback soon.
  4. Создайте предложения, используя Future Perfect с Perfect Infinitive:
    • _____________________________________________________________________.
    • _____________________________________________________________________.
    • _____________________________________________________________________.
  5. Замените выделенные части предложений на Perfect Infinitive:
    • They may have got married in June.
    • The tourists are reported to have been robbed.
    • You should have come earlier.
    • She seems to have quit the job.
  6. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, используя Perfect Infinitive:
    • It seems that he abandoned his family.
    • They say that she finished her degree last year.
    • It appears that they already signed the contract.
    • I heard that he regretted not studying harder for the exam.
  7. Заполните пропуски, используя правильную форму Perfect Infinitive:
    • The document seems ____________ (sign) by the manager.
    • We would have preferred ____________ (stay) at a small hotel.
    • She claimed ____________ (meet) a number of famous people.
    • Before the guests arrived, the chef had already ____________ (prepare) a gourmet meal.
    • I am fortunate ____________ (witness) the spectacular sunset.
  8. Создайте условные предложения 3-го типа, используя Perfect Infinitive:
    • _____________________________________________________________________.
    • _____________________________________________________________________.
    • _____________________________________________________________________.
  9. Замените выделенные части предложений на Perfect Infinitive:
    • We hope to finish the building works by the end of March.
    • I am glad that I found my soul mate.
    • He pretended not to notice me.
    • By the end of summer, I will come back home.
  10. Заполните пропуски, используя правильную форму Perfect Infinitive:
  • The team was proud ____________ (achieve) the highest sales record.
  • He was excited ____________ (try) a new dish at the restaurant.
  • They are going to be happy ____________ (visit) the new museum.
  • After the storm passed, we were glad ____________ (secure) the windows in time.
  • She was pleased ____________ (hear) the good news.
    Ответы на упражнения:
    1. Закончите предложение, используя Perfect Infinitive:
      • I was shocked to hear that she had resigned.
      • By the time we arrived, they had left the party.
      • She claimed to have visited all the major cities in Europe.
      • They pretended not to have seen the accident.
      • Before the deadline, I hope to have completed the project.
    2. Переведите следующие предложения на английский, используя Perfect Infinitive:
      • He claims to have already finished his homework.
      • We would prefer to have stayed in a warm country for the entire winter season.
      • Unfortunately, she claimed to have missed the most interesting show.
      • We hope that they will have finished the construction works by the end of summer.
      • Before I return home, I want to have written a book.
    3. Заполните пропуски, используя правильную форму Perfect Infinitive:
      • She pretended not to have eaten the cake.
      • I am glad to have found this rare book.
      • They are expected to arrive by noon.
      • You should have read the instructions before starting.
      • We hope to receive the feedback soon.
    4. Создайте предложения, используя Future Perfect с Perfect Infinitive:
      • By the end of this month, I will have visited three different countries.
      • They will have completed the renovation of their house by next year.
      • By the time you come back, I will have finished redecorating your room.
    5. Замените выделенные части предложений на Perfect Infinitive:
      • They may have got married in June.
        • They may have gotten married in June.
      • The tourists are reported to have been robbed.
        • The tourists are reported to have suffered a robbery.
      • You should have come earlier.
        • You should have arrived earlier.
      • She seems to have quit the job.
        • She seems to have resigned from the job.
    6. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, используя Perfect Infinitive:
      • It seems that he abandoned his family.
        • He seems to have abandoned his family.
      • They say that she finished her degree last year.
        • She is said to have finished her degree last year.
      • It appears that they already signed the contract.
        • They appear to have already signed the contract.
      • I heard that he regretted not studying harder for the exam.
        • He is heard to have regretted not studying harder for the exam.
    7. Заполните пропуски, используя правильную форму Perfect Infinitive:
      • The document seems to have been signed by the manager.
      • We would have preferred to stay at a small hotel.
      • She claimed to have met a number of famous people.
      • Before the guests arrived, the chef had already prepared a gourmet meal.
      • I am fortunate to have witnessed the spectacular sunset.
    8. Создайте условные предложения 3-го типа, используя Perfect Infinitive:
      • If he had studied harder, he would have passed the exam.
      • If she had known about the event, she would have attended.
      • If they had arrived on time, they would have caught the train.
    9. Замените выделенные части предложений на Perfect Infinitive:
      • We hope to finish the building works by the end of March.
        • We hope to have finished the building works by the end of March.
      • I am glad that I found my soul mate.
        • I am glad to have found my soul mate.
      • He pretended not to notice me.
        • He pretended not to have noticed me.
      • By the end of summer, I will come back home.
        • By the end of summer, I will have come back home.
    10. Заполните пропуски, используя правильную форму Perfect Infinitive:
    • The team was proud to have achieved the highest sales record.
    • He was excited to have tried a new dish at the restaurant.
    • They are going to be happy to have visited the new museum.
    • After the storm passed, we were glad to have secured the windows in time.
    • She was pleased to have heard the good news.

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